Fullerenes, Nanotubes and Nanotechnology

This is a place to share something interesting you have learned about nanotubes in particular or nanotechnology in general.  Click on the "Edit" tab and scroll to the bottom of the list.  Give your entry a title, add your name, and summarize your findings in a few sentences.  Don't forget to cite your source so we can follow up to learn more. Click on "save" at the bottom and you're done!

ACS Nanotechnology seminars (Dr. Starkey): Nanotechnology was a big theme at the recent American Chemical Society (ACS) national meeting in Salt Lake City.  The ACS has made several of those talks available for free online.  As these are professional research talks, they are pretty technical.  However, you might be particularly interested in the symposium on 3/23/09 that focuses on "Challenges in Nanotechnology."


Buckyball Film Cameo (Dr. Starkey): When I was in grad school, NOVA came to UCLA when they were working on a documentary on the discovery of buckminsterfullerene (C60 aka buckyball).  They wanted some "SoCal-looking" people for an opening scene, so they found three blond-haired, blue-eyed chemistry grad students.  (We all know that's what everyone looks like in southern California, right?  The real joke is that ALL THREE of us are originally from Connecticut - ha!)  Anyway, we all put on some buckyball t-shirts and jogged across campus as they filmed their intro to "Race to Catch a Buckyball" which aired in 1995.

What do nanotubes do well? Nanotube in Guinness World Record?  (Wendy Avila): They are structural composites, tips for NanoProbes, Field Emission, Transistors, Electromechanical Actuators, Logic Gates, Bulk Electronics, Battery electrodes, capacitators, EMI, and Gas storage. Nanotubes have interesting mechanical properties. Experiments and theoretical calculations have shown that carbon nanotubes are very stiff; in fact, they have the highest Young’s modulus ~resistance towards axial deformation! That has ever been measured, at approximately 1.2 TPa. Nanotubes are also made to emit electrons with ease and can be used as chemical sensors, and could possibly even serve as a gas storage medium. These characteristics seem to offer endless possibilities for technological applications. An interesting fact there was an outreach program that built the “World’s Largest SWNT model” (Building a Giant NANOTUBE!)

Nanotube printers (Patty Yeh): On August 2006, a group of scientists from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and University of Oulu, Finnland, created a method for printers to use carbon nanotubes on paper and plastic surfaces. This new invention could lead electronic companies to utilize carbon nanotubes in their future products. These scientists initiated this project by using an ordinary injet printer to print nanotubes on a wide variety of surfaces. Since nanotubes are excellent conductors, the purpose of this project is to test how successful a product with carbon nanotubes can be. It turns out that it was indeed, an accomplished machinery, Using nanotechnology has its advantages, such as its efficiency for the user and is environmentally safe that could potentially be used in alternative energy sources. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/08/060830220023.htm

'Asbestos warning' on nanotubes (By Jonathan Fildes Science and technology reporter, BBC News) As a Biology major, i though that looking and researching about nanotechnology would be dull and boring. It proved to be really interesting. There are so many wonderful things being written about nanotubes and how they can make a huge impact despite their "nano" size. I was wondering if there were any sort of risks that came along with this new technology. I came across an article that was put out by BBC News about the possible negative effects of nanotubes. The researches compared the molecular structure to that of asbestos, which earlier cause a pandemic of lung disease in the 20th century. The structure of the nanotubes are hard for our lungs to deal with if they are thin, long, tough and insoluble to the lung. Some of these nanotubes do in fact take on some of these characteristics. As a bio major, its interesting and exciting to see the worlds of Ochem and Bio clash. Here is the link to the article. I found it really interesting. :)

-Courtney Alberi


Nanotubes and the Military(Diana Tenney):Technology in the Military is taking safety and tactics to the next level. Just take a look at this short article and find out how scientists have used carbon nanotube coating to disable land mines and more! http://www.bio-medicine.org/biology-technology-1/New-nanotube-coating-enables-novel-laser-power-meter-12017-1/

Nanotubes possibly for flat panels screens (Ryan Hong):  I was reading up at http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/webprojects2001/andrews/nanotubes-uses.html, and they are saying that nanotubes are currently being developed for flat panels devices.  They found that nanotubes can emit a ring shaped electron disharge when they are exposed to an electrical field.  In Japan, they have been able to grow these nanotubes in a vertical alignment an in the location they would like it be in.  With this, the website says that they can hopefully combine the high picture quality of a CRT while keeping it thin and low power of a LCD.

Nanotubes and Gene Therapy (Alicia Berl):  Diseases caused by missing or defective genes can hopefully be cured by the use of nanotubes.  Europoean researchers have used nanotubes to make it possible to pass DNA through cell membranes which is something that DNA can not normally do.  This is made possible by attaching several chains of carbon and oxygen outside the carbon nanotubes.  At the end of each chain they placed a +NH3 amino group which makes the needles more water soluble.  The charged groups are also very attractive to the negatively charged phosphate groups on the DNA backnone.  Small plasmids (circular bacterial DNA) were electrostatically anchored to the outsides of the nanotubes which was brought into contact with the animal cell.  Once inside the cell the genes proved to be useful and becuase the process did not destabilize the cell membrane, the integrity of the cell was not compromised.


Nanotubes and different types of manipulations for different purposes (Christine Chao) I found this website which talks about how nanotubes can be maniupulated and how it applies to different purposes.  One of the examples given is to form a nanotube ring and has been applied to study electron transport in biomolecules.  While another type of example is using nanotubes as a field-effect transistor. http://www.research.ibm.com/nanoscience/nanotubes.html

Using nanotubes to detect cancer cells (Kieu Truong) http://nanotechwire.com/news.asp?nid=7075&ntid=133&pg=2

Nanotubes as a space elevator  The sci-fi dream of an elevator to the moon may be fulfilled by carbon nanotubes.  Because the tubes are so light in wieght, they will not collapse under their own weight like other cable materials would and yet are strong enough to support a sizeable cargo, and so are capable of spanning the gap to the moon or a satelite docking station.  The ability of the tubes to conduct electricity may also make it possible to power the elevator with the same technology used on bullet trains, and the energy required to escape earths gravity would be about 100 times less than that needed to launch a space shuttle. (Rebecca Hall)


Nanotubes in space continued

Detailed design work on the space elevator concept has been made possible through NASA's Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC). For those needing a modest refresher course, a space elevator, in its simplest form, is a high-wire act for celestial mechanics. One end of the cable would be attached to an offshore sea platform. The cable stretches up through the sky and outward into space for some 62,000 miles (100,000 kilometers) distance. On the space end of the cable - a counter weight. Once in place, the competing forces of gravity at the lower end and outward centripetal acceleration at the farther end keep the cable under tension and stationary over a single position on Earth. The outstretched cable can then be ascended by mechanical means. If a robotic climber slowly tools up to the far end of the cable, then releases from the line, it would have sufficient energy to escape from Earth's gravity well and zoom onward to the Moon, Mars, Venus, or asteroids.

A working space elevator can haul up large fragile structures such as solar power satellites, habitats, and payloads for the exploration and development of space (Kurt Bodenstedt)


Carbon nanotubes carcinogenic? ( Michael Zhou )

Recent research suggests that inhaling carbon nanotubes can potentially lead to lung cancer. However, since these filaments take a very long time to spread, it is estimated that the infection would show symptoms within 30-40 years. Inhaling carbon nanotubes harms the lining of the body, often degrading the body cavity and eliminating a majority of the bodie's immune cells that reside on it. Although there are much speculation on reducing contacts with this new technology, the best prevention (and currently the only one) is to properly dispose/recycle them so they do not linger in the air. For more information, please refer to: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=carbon-nanotube-danger

Conductivity and Paper Batteries (Ken Flack)

The superconductivity of nanotubes is approximately 1000 times greater than copper and has been researched in its various conductive uses.   But paper batteries are probably the most interesting use of nanotubes superconductivity.   A Paper battery consists of a thin sheet of cellulose which is infused with aligned nanotubes and then a ionic liquid is soaked into the paper.   The ionic liquid acts as the batteries electrolyte, and since it is essentially a liquid salt, is able to withstand both low and high extremes in temperature.   The nanotubes act as electrodes conducting the electricity.   The end product in paper battery technology is a battery which weighs about as much as regular paper, which is a ultralite battery, and is extremely flexable.   These stacked, rolled, folded, twisted, or cut, all while maintaining the value of the battery.   Just thinking about a few of the ways these batteries can be used in everyday life can give you an idea of possible nanotube use in your future life.   And about their bio use, these paper batteries can use fluids such as urine or blood as an electrolyte.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/6945732.stm , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paper_batteryhttp://www.eetimes.com/news/latest/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=201800045

Silicon Aromatics and Silicon Fullerenes (Ken Flack)

Being curious and fascinated about silicon organic chemistry, I checked out the research on full silicon aromatic compounds.   While carbon aromatics are very stable, the silicon aromatics are quite unstable.   Silicon is very similar to carbon and will react in the same mechanisms but is poor at forming stable pi bonds, especially with carbon.   Carbon aromatics with a silicon atom replacing one of the carbons have been made, but create a very polar bond.   If a carbon in unreactive benzene is replaced with silicon then a very reactive silabenzene would be produced and would not maintain its ring structure.   However silicon aromatics have been produced, such as 2-silanapthalene or cyclosilenylium cation(similair to cyclopropenium cation), by using bulky substituents attached to the ring.(http://sciencelinks.jp/j-east/article/199907/000019990799A0247671.php, http://www.rsc.org/chemistryworld/News/2005/July/19070502.asp)   Silicon fullerenes have also been produced more recently in the form of metal- encapsulated tetrahedral silicon fullerenes.(http://www.ias.ac.in/matersci/bmsjan2003/Bms3876.pdf)

Spinning Carbon Nanotubes (Aaron Ransom)

CSIRO (The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation - Australia's national science agency) has been researching how to use carbon nanotubes as a fiber for various uses in the medical and aerospace industries.  They have a video posted on the site which shows how they are producing the fibers which maintain their electrical conductivity (see Rebecca's post above for further info on use in aerospace). 


Carbon nanotubes and the environment (Yu-Huey Lin): The carbon nanotubes might pollute the environment through the water and then go into our body. Carbon fibers are hardly water soluble when a diameter is less than 50 nm. However, they also are able to form colloidal solutions if their surface structure is changed and can be released into the environment during the production of the tubes. A colloidal solution can form tiny particles and these particles might penetrate cell walls to enter human or animal cells. In addition, changes in the surface structure of carbon nanotubes also increase their capability to bind heavy metals. Although, there still need more evidences and further study to provide if the behavior of carbon nanotubes in waters have impact on enivernoment, it might can reduce the risk to environment if we can be very careful when produce them or dispose them properly. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/05/090504121921.htm

Applications of Carbon Nanotubes in Drug Delivery (Idalid Franco)

Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have emerged as a new, and efficient alternative for transporting and translocating theraputic molecules.  CNT can be functionallized with bioactive peptides, proteins, nucleic acids and drugs and used to deliver these to cells and organs.  Since CNT have low toxicity and are not immunogenic they hold great potential in the field of nanomedicine.  An article addressing nanotubes in drug delivery was published in 2005 in the journal of Current Opinion in Chemical Biology, where the authors investigate: peptide delivery, cellular uptake, nucleic acid delivery, and drug delivery with nanotubes.  They conclude that organic functionalisation has opened new horizons in the study of biological properties of CNT.  This article is of particular interest to those thinking of going into biomedical research and the applications of organic chemistry in this field. This article can be found at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6VRX-4HBTDHM-2&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=11a70ae9b0f67ca4cb38a3831e9d18af

Artificial Muscles/ Actuators (Jeannie Knuchell)

Carbon nanotube actuators are capable of converting electrical energy into mechanical energy in the form of movement.  In a nanotube actuator, two small pieces of "buckypaper" (paper made from nanotubes) are placed on either side of a double sided piece of tape and attached to either a positive or negative electrode.  When current is applied electrons are pumped into one the pieces of buckypaper causing the nanotubes on that side to expand, thus causing the tape to curl in that direction.  This curling can produce 50-100 times the force of a human muscle and has been deemed an "artificial muscle."  Applications of nanotube actuators have been used in robotics and the development of prostheses.


Nanotubes Increase Efficiency of Nano-Particle Based Solar Cells (Lauren Holloway)

I was particularly pleased to find carbon nanotubes being used to improve technology for solar cells. Normally nano-particle based cells use a thin film of titanium dioxide particles, however when light is absorbed by the titanium-oxide particles, the generated electrons have to jump from particle to particle in order to reach the electrode for collection. The addition of carbon nanotubes provides a direct path for the electrons to travel along on their way to the electrodes.


I was also very happy to learn how scientists are attempting to use metal “decorated” nanotubes as a form of fuel cell, which acts as a form of storage for hydrogen. This is reacted with oxygen to form water vapor, releasing energy in the process.


Room-temperature transistor based on a single Carbon nanotube (Lee Tharachai)

I found this article on nature.com; it describes the unique ability of a carbon nanotube to conduct electricity.  Furthermore, the article states that by applying a voltage through the gate eletrode the nanotube can be converted into its insulating state.  This is a major leap for the furture of molecular electronic devices, for it can be done at room temperature, which is an important requirement.  http://www.nature.com/nautre/journal/v393/n6680/abs/393049a0.html

I found an article about using nanotube technology in telivisions. They are supposed to be much slimmer than current LCD or Plasma flatscreens. They also hope to have them have a better picture. One important advance is that LCD's suffer from"ghosting" or lag which these will not. The link is below.


http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2006/03/21/1142703346701.html    (added by Spencer Brown) 

Nanotubes as replacement for metals! (Joseph Legaspi)

I was excited to find this article because it challenges the Joules law.  The article is about replacing metals with nanotubes because of its unique properties.  "Basaran and his doctoral student Tarek Ragab have spent the past four years performing quantum mechanics calculations, which prove that in carbon nanotubes, higher current density does not lead to electromigration and thermomigration; it also produces just one percent of the heat produced by traditional metals, such as copper."  This means that nanotubes don't create heat when electricity is traveling because it doesn't follow Joules law.  He compares the differences between metal and carbon nanotubes in terms of electrical conductivity and expanded with an analogy of conventional railroad train and magnetic levitation train.  It basically states that the difference is in carbon nanotubes, the electrons travel much faster because it doesn't interact with the nanotubes, thus preventing heat to be created.  Most electric cars run under carbon nanotubes to prevent overheating since metal creates heat as electricity passes trough.  Imagine if most electronic devices runs on carbon nanotubes! The sad part, as he concluded, that not many research is done on nanotubes in the US as opposed to Asia. 


Nanotube Coating Enables Novel Laser Power Meter (added by Ashley Cheney)

After reading through all the other submitted entries I was very eager to go out and find my own research on the topic of nanotubes. The article that I found, published on May 14th 2009, was on how the U.S. military can now calibrate high-power laser systems, such as those intended to defuse unexploded mines, more efficiently due to the invention of the nanotube-coated power measurement devise. Interestingly, the new laser power meter, tested at a U.S. Air Force base last week, will be used to measure the light emitted by 10-kilowatt (kW) laser systems. Light focused from a 10kW laser is more than a million times more intense than sunlight reaching the EARTH!! The makeup of the nanotube devise is really interesting as well, being that something so small is able to measure values of such high parameters! Read on...  


Nanotubes used for desalination of water (Fayha Tariq)

I’m taking this class about building sustaining communities and was doing research for a paper when I came across this article, which fits, perfectly into our discussion about nanotubes. Studies have shown than nanotubes can be used in the process of desalinating water effectively and at a lower cost. The procedure involves a nanotube membrane on a tiny silicon tube creating a pore that will then be used while desalinating water.  Further research is being done to “understand the physics of transport through the nanotube pores and finding different ways to improve and control the transport selectivity. Understanding the fundamental physics and mechanism of transport through the nanotube pores also could lead to more efficient membrane separation techniques.”

Since fresh water supplies are depleting, using seawater than can be easily and effectively be desalinated may be a solution to our problems and would help in building a sustainable future.


Nanotubes as nanoprobes in scanning probe microscopy (added by Mildred Arandia) 

This article talks about how the tips for scanning probe microscopy were actually not very sturdy and seldomly survived a 'tip crash' with the surface. Now they have found that carbon nanotubes might constitute well defined tips for scanning probe microscopy. The flexibility of the carbon nanotubes makes the tips resistant to damage from 'tip crashes' if they do occur and their slenderness allows for imaging of sharp recesses in surface topography. By using the nanotubes for scanning tunnelling microscopy they have also been able to exploit the electrical conductivity of them as well.


Nanotechnology Risks: Fullerenes found to penetrate healthy skin. (D. Michael Ramos)

Nano particles and fullerenes have been shown to penetrate healthy skin, the penetration is promoted by mechanical flexion movement. (ie. flexing your muscles)

Nanotubes Used to aid Bonegrowth. (hector quevedo):

Bioengineers and bioscientists at Rice University and Radboud University in Nijmegen, Netherlands, have shown they can grow denser bone tissue by sprinkling stick-like nanoparticles throughout the porous material used to pattern the bone.

Nanotechnology  (Esther B.)

Nanotechnology has the potential to create many new materials and devices with wide-ranging applications, such as in medicine, electronics, and energy production. On the other hand, nanotechnology raises many of the same issues as with any introduction of new technology, including concerns about the toxicity and environmental impact of nanomaterials [1], and their potential effects on global economics, as well as speculation about various doomsday scenarios. These concerns have led to a debate among advocacy groups and governments on whether special regulation of nanotechnology is warranted.


Buckyball Coating to Hinder the Growth of Bacteria. (Stephanie Wong)

Engineers from Duke University have discovered that buckyballs have the ability to hinder the growth of bacteria and other organisms from growing on membranes which are used to filter water to treat plants.  Coating pipes with these particles can therefore serve to be an effective strategy for treating and solving major water problems while reducing costs.  Buckyballs will then prevent clogging or "biofouling" as bacteria can build up inside pipes over time.  Though it is a very commonly used nanoparticle, further research is needed to determine if buckyballs have any negative effect on the environment or to humans.

For Reference: http://www.theengineer.co.uk/Articles/Article.aspx?liArticleID=310395

Nanotube Technology Transforms CO2 Into Fuel (Jonathan Silverman)

Researchers at Pennsylvania State University are working to help eliminate some of the problems caused by excess CO2 in the atmosphere with the help of sunlight and titanium oxide Nanotubes. These two elements, sunlight and titanium oxide Nanotubes can transform carbon dioxide into methane. Methane can be utilized as energy source. It seems like double benefit. At one hand, we are reducing the quantity of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and we would be less dependent on fossil fuels. these would be done by collecting the waste out of a smoke stack and putting it though a converter which would use sunlight to change CO2 back into fuel. Check this article for more info:  http://www.alternative-energy-news.info/nanotube-technology-transforms-co2-into-fuel/

Will Copper Sop Up Radioactive Pollution? (Amanda Glass)

An article in the october 21, 2001 issue of Chemical & Engineering News discussing the possible use of copper nanotubes in relation to pollution. In particular, the article discusses the harm of cesium-137 that is being stored in Richmond, Washington. There are more than 157 gallons being stored underground in the facility and it is believed that some of the tanks are leaking. The half life of cesium-137 is extremely long, and is poses a danger to the ecosystem as it can be mistaken for potassium. The copper nanotubes may be able to absorb the cesium. For more information, visit this site: http://www.copper.org/publications/newsletters/innovations/2002/06/radioactive_pollution.html

Molecular functionalization of carbon nanotubes and use as a substrates for neuronal growth (Sandra Hernandez)

In this patent, carbon nanotubes are being used as substrates to have neurons grow. The nanotube is said to have a promoting growth factor and that is why there is neuronal growth when the nanotubes are used.


The Fight Against Cancer with the use of NANOMEDICINE! (Tina Bui) 

Nanomedicine can possibly eliminate the side effects that cancer patients go through during therapy. The treatment targets only tumor cells while avoiding the damage of healthy tissues which cause the side effects.


Nanotubes and electronic devices (Ryan Bakhit)

I found this article about how nanotubes can be used in future electronic devices. Researchers from China and the US have combined titanium dioxide nanoparticles with carbon nanotubes to make light-sensitive transistors that can be made either to switch on or off in response to UV light. The work could be the basis for new types of sensors and optoelectronic devices, the scientists say. http://www.rsc.org/chemistryworld/News/2009/May/28050901.asp

Veterinary college, Luna Innovations partner on nationally funded nerve gas program (Issac J. Seo)

National Institutes of Health was awarded 1 million dollars to develop nanotechnology which was to protect people from the deadly affects of nerves gases like Sarin, VX. They use nanoparticles--fullerenes to enhance the water solubility and catalytic and antioxidant properties. The nanoWorks and Biomedical Technologies Group of Luna Innovations Inc. of Roanoke, Va., the company that is partnering with Ehrich on the work, are developing the fullerene derivatives and supporting immunoreagents. http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2009-02/vt-vcl021209.php

Carbon Nanotubes May Pose Asbestos-Like Threat to Human Health (Anh Tran)

Nanotubes can cause harm to the human body because it acts like asbestos. The carbon nanotubes are similar to asbestos and they were tested on mice and found that it causes inflammation and scarring of the lining of the lungs and stomach just like asbestos.  The fiber is long, thin and insoluble in the lunch and it is harmful to the body. Some doctors believe that nanotubes are pathogenic because they cause inflammation and scar formation.  This could be harmful to the workers who work with nanotubes and/or possible exposure from demolish products that contain nanotubes. For more information check out this article : http://www.naturalnews.com/024215_nanotubes_carbon_nanotubes_asbestos.html

Nanotube Applications (Cynthia Castillo)

I found this article that illustrated various applications of carbon nanotubes.  Due to the properties nanotubes express many companies and researchers have considered applying them to different field, including lightweight spacecraft (NASA), transport anti-cancer drug through blood stream (Medical), and nanotube detection elements- the sensors would be capable of identifying various chemical vapors, carbon monoxide for instance.  The article provides links for the different applications check it out!


Nanotubes and future cancter treatment (Christine Tran)

Single-walled carbon nanotubes explode when they are heated by a laser at an 800-nanometer wavelength. This phenomenon was discovered in 2002 and scientists have already considered the possibilities of a new military explosives or rocket propellant. Now, researchers are also suggesting that this can be a way to kill hard to reach cancer cells without damaging healthy cells. Although issues of control are of concern, it is an interesting and innovative idea. This use of nanotubes may also be used in conjunction with nanotechlogy research being done today to find a novel way of directing cancer drugs specifically to areas of interest to increase potency but decrease the side effects.


Infrared Nanotube Films Offer Advantages for Solar Cells and More (Chris Cuevo)

Researchers have already known that carbon nanotube thin films have mechanical and conductive advantages that could make them useful as electrodes in solar cells, solid state lighting, and electronic displays. However, studies so far have focused on how well nanotube films transmit light in the visible range, but have not explored the films' infrared properties.


Carbon Nanotubes: Connection to Nasa's mission and vision. (Neda Nassr)

Carbon nanotubes can be formed in a variety of process environments including chemical deposition processes, plasma, and arc processes, and some laser-thermal processes. The nanotubes are generally in the one to ten nanometer range in diameter, but can be many micrometers in length. Furthermore, the most active is the U.S followed by Japan, China, France, the UK, and Russia who are some of the countries leading the way for usinf nanotechnology. Also, one of the major nanomaterials currently in research are CD players and much more.


Physical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes: (Monica Barhoma )

Carbon nanotubes, long, thin cylinders of carbon, were discovered in 1991 by S. Iijima. These are large macromolecules that are unique for their size, shape, and remarkable physical properties. They can be thought of as a sheet of graphite (a hexagonal lattice of carbon) rolled into a cylinder. These intriguing structures have sparked much excitement in the recent years and a large amount of research has been dedicated to their understanding. Currently, the physical properties are still being discovered and disputed. What makes it so difficult is that nanotubes have a very broad range of electonic, thermal, and structural properties that change depending on the different kinds of nanotube (defined by its diameter, length, and chirality, or twist). To make things more interesting, besides having a single cylindrical wall (SWNTs), nanotubes can have multiple walls (MWNTs)--cylinders inside the other cylinders. This web site is an ongoing effort to provide researchers, students, and other interested scientists with a central location for the exchange of current knowledge and information.  


Carbon Nanotube Speakers

"by sending an audio-frequency current through a carbon nanotube thin film, it can be made into a superthin high-performance loudspeaker that emits sound in a wide-frequency range. The carbon nanotube speaker functions without any moving parts or heavy magnets." The link I found also has an interesting youtube video link on the page. KaiLi Jiang and Shoushan Fan from Beijing discovered this when they drew out a thin film fro CNT arrays and then tested it for acoustic properties. They found that when a current was passed through, it would quickly change between room temperature and 80 degrees C, which results in pressure oscillations in the air next to the tube and produces sound. When stretched out, the tubes become transparent which opens the door to uses such as eliminating the use of speakers inTVs or for fun uses like having sound come from clothing.  http://www.technovelgy.com/ct/Science-Fiction-News.asp?NewsNum=2013. Liz Mock

Nanotube Transistors (Alfred V.)


Created in sunny Southern California, nanotube transistors can replace metal oxide semiconductors, key elements of modern microprocessors in computers, in a superior fashion. Wow, is there anything nanotubes can't do???

Nanotubes and Buckyballs (Sarah Tadros)

Carbon nanotubes possess many unique properties which make them ideal AFM probes. Their high aspect ratio provides faithful imaging of deep trenches, while good resolution is retained due to their nanometer-scale diameter. These geometrical factors also lead to reduced tip-sample adhesion, which allows gentler imaging. Nanotubes elastically buckle rather than break when deformed, which results in highly robust probes. They are electrically conductive, which allows their use in STM and EFM (electric force microscopy), and they can be modified at their ends with specific chemical or biological groups for high resolution functional imaging. Professor Charles M. Lieber Group


An interesting application of carbon nanotubes in medicine is for sensing the molecules or species. Many studies on the electrochemical reactivity of carbon nanotubes showed that carbon nanotubes can enhance the biomolecules and promote the electron transfer in proteins. It has been found that carbon nanotubes promote electron transfer in heme containing proteins. In heme containing proteins carbon nanotubes are able to access the heme centre of biomolecules that is generally not sensed by the glass electrodes.

Carbon nanotubes can also be used as blood vessels in order to deliver drugs to their target. When the drug delivery is done that way, the drug dosage can be lowered (and it’s cheaper for the pharmaceutical companies). There are two methods, both equally effective — a) the drug can be attached to the side or behind, b) or the drug can actually be placed inside the nanotube.


Carbon Nanotubes (Lauren Hagen)

The amazing properties of nanotubes are the focus of new technologies. The history of nanotubes is very interstesting from the first dimensions prepared in the 1970s to the discovery of nanotubes and buckyballs. The stucture has been observed by high-resolution microscopy. In 1996, an effective way to make nanotubes was discovered at Rice University. Electrons act differently when they are in a nanotube but actually measurements of phenamenas are hard to measure because of the size and stucture of the nanotube. Nanotubes do some interesting things with light like with Raman Spectrum.


Buckyballs for wheels (Calvin Wong)

Looking to  see if there was an application to the world of cars or automobiles I came across using buckyballs as tires for nano-cars! Scientest are hoping to build nano-trucks to move atoms or molecules around. 


Nanotubes and bikes (Miriam Marlow)

I think nanotubes have so many uses. I myself being a motorcycle enthusiast find there use very beneficial in the racing industry. Nanotubes can be mixed with resin to form a light weight but very sturdy bike. This can make a bike very light and will encourage faster track times yet still be durable and sturdy machines to ride. One pedal bike made out of nanotubes was quoted to weigh as "much as 5 cellphones." Thats pretty lightweight! These bikes were first used in the Tour De France and have just recently come avaliable to the public but at a very steep price. The strength to weight ration of nanaotubes are stronger than that of steel. I think that is so amazing. Now athletes can become faster and faster as this technology grows.


Nano Tube Radio 

(Edgar Rodriguez)

Scientists at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab and UC Berkeley have created the world’s smallest radio from a single carbon nanotube.

The single nanotube serves, at once, as all major components of a radio: antenna, tuner, amplifier, and demodulator. Moreover, the antenna and tuner are implemented in a radically different manner than traditional radios, receiving signals via high frequency mechanical vibrations of the nanotube rather than through traditional electrical means. The nanotube radio receives and plays music from FM radio transmissions such as Layla by Eric Clapton (Derek and the Dominos) and the Beach Boy’s Good Vibrations. The nanotube radio’s extremely small size could enable radical new applications such as radio controlled devices small enough to exist in the human bloodstream, or simply smaller, cheaper, and more efficient wireless devices such as cellular phones.



Carbon Nanotubes (En Chen)

Carbon nanotubes are unique nanostructures that have remarkable electronic and mechanical properties. Interest from the research community first focused on their exotic electronic properties, since nanotubes can be considered as prototypes for a one-dimensional quantum wire. As other useful properties have been discovered, particularly strength, interest has grown in potential applications. Carbon nanotubes are usually used in nanometre-sized electronics or to strengthen polymer materials.

Nanotubes and Buckeyballs (Stephen Chen)

Carbon nanotubes have many unique properties and are ideal AFM probes. Their high aspect ratio give faithful imaging of deep trenches, while good resolution is retained due to their nanometer-scale diameter. These geometrical factors also lead to reduced tip-sample adhesion, which allows gentler imaging. Nanotubes can elastically buckle and not break when deformed, which make them highly robust probes. They are electrically conductive, which allows their use in STM and EFM (electric force microscopy), and they can be modified at their ends with specific chemical or biological groups for high resolution functional imaging.